Philosopher Harry Frankfurt famously drew a distinction between lies and what he termed “bullshit”.
A lie is an untruth, but it is still tied to a fact. It is the corruption of the fact. Bullshit is speech with no basis in fact, in truth. Many of us think we live in an age of lies, when in fact we live in an age of bullshit.
Bullshit is like belief, its embrace affords no room for questioning.
Frankfurt’s notion of bullshit can help us better understand the nature of modern politics, advertising, news and even science (think climate change denial or anti-vaxxers).…